As a former professional painter, something that drives me crazy is when I see painters cut in around wall plates. First of all, the amount of time that it takes to cut in is usually much longer than the amount of time that it takes to simply remove the wall plate. Secondly it does not look nearly as clean as it does when the wall plate is removed and thirdly it can invariably leave paint on the wall plate itself which also looks sloppy. Make sure the painter takes them off and then reinstalls them. It's less time.

When the workers came they took care of all the stuff I'd seen other reviewers mention, removing old phone lines, some stucco work, but one thing I didn't expect is that one of my awnings had some dry rot that I'd planned to get fixed. There was slight language barrier but the workers took it into their own hands to saw off and repair the awning before painting it. Wow!


If you are going to hire a contractor (professional painter) give a room by room punch list of the fixing of holes small or big, have it identified for the painter to tell you if you need a drywall finisher or if he does this type of work good. Wall repairs can be 3-5 steps to do repairs ( one per day for good drying of patching material and a good sanding) this is what gives you a good paint job only using high quality paint.
If you feel your home or office has lost its sparkle, maybe it’s time to get it back with a fresh coat of paint. New paint is a fast, simple way to give your property a facelift without breaking the bank or taking on a major overhaul. With new paint and finishes, it’s easy to change the look of your interior and exterior surroundings with a minimal amount of effort.
Paint Life is here to educate, empower and equip painters worldwide.  Think you cannot paint? You can! The Idaho Painter serves YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest viewers worldwide with free self help painting videos. Paint Life and The Idaho Painter were created as an alternative to the big box DIY video shows that have actors who only act like they can paint but really can barely act.  I believe painting is for everybody. The Idaho Painter and Paint Life is the most popular DIY painting channel on YouTube, Instagram, and Facebook. My mission is to shatter the barriers of entry into painting and convince people that it can be a lot of fun painting on your own without hiring a professional painter. Paint Life is here to teach you to LOVE painting and expose that painters have skills and can be respected.  No experience is necessary. 
You can save a bundle by doing the labor yourself. The biggest DIY expense is paint. Other expenses include buying or renting supplies and equipment, like caulk, primer, brushes, rollers, tarps and ladders or scaffolding. Freeman advises applying paint with brushes, not a sprayer. “If you overspray all the window frames and overspray your shingles and your sidewalks and the brick on the front of the house, you do damage that is not easily fixed,” he says.
HIGHLY recommend this company. We needed to hire someone to paint the interior of our home. The owner came over initially to give a quote and was very nice. Talked to him about his family and his business. He is very experienced and takes pride in doing great work. They are licensed and have workers compensation insurance, which was really important for us. The actual painters included Sandy, who was amazing and helped me select the right paint colors for our house.
I’m writing to you to say thank you formally and properly for the painting of my art deco apartment in Elwood. It’s terrific and has given the place a wonderful, well deserved lift. It was once everything was back in place, dusted and cleaned, with tulips in the vases and my newly adopted kitty, Rocky Gorgeous moved in, that I really felt at home and could appreciate all your hard work. Family, friends (including the fussy ones) and even tradesmen (including window cleaners) have commented on the attention to detail and the great paint job, in particular to the all white French doors, sash windows and skirting boards. I’m delighted with the preparation, paint work and tidy up. The place looks great in all the  different lights of day with the paintings and decor looking much better, as well against the new backdrop of the fresh paint.
The Painting Company of Birmingham became a leading Alabama house painter because we take the beauty of your home seriously. Your satisfaction is what keeps us in business after all. We know the time and effort it takes to complete a beautiful home paint job so we are dedicated to making our services well worth the expense. Contact us at The Painting Company of Birmingham for further information on our house painting services in your area.
Leading the commercial painting industry in the state, The Painting Company of Birmingham staffs a team of expert painting contractors that are dedicated to promoting the type of image you want for your business. Like our residential painting services, our company’s commercial painting in Birmingham is of the highest quality and is backed by our warranty. Whether we are working on an interior or exterior project, The Painting Company of Birmingham is the best painting contractor in Alabama.
I was taught to paint by a professional and when estimating the amount of paint needed, I always allow for a second coat just to make sure of coverage. We interviewed a painter who tried to tell me I bought poor quality paint without knowing where I purchased it, and stated he would have to buy all new paint. He had not seen the cans and was just guessing so I asked him where I should buy paint from now on. It was the same place I had purchased my paint and he wanted to charge me an extra 20 a gallon more than what I paid for. Needless to say, I have interviewed numerous painters and they are not all honest.
Thanks, all, for your time & efforts adding to the article & comments, especially Dave urging requesting both General Liability AND Worker Compensation insurance certificates to protect from real & fraudulent liability--from my experience especially in California, where insurance fraud is a popular income thief, even causing car collisions to collect.
Whether it is for construction finishing work or home or office renovation, our team of Melbourne painters are friendly, knowledgeable professionals, ready to work with you to design and create the right feel and theme for your surface finishing project. For whatever your needs for interior or exterior painters, Melbourne residences and businesses can turn to our conscientious and helpful painters. Melbourne is our main area of business, but we also provide other regions with professional painters (Armadale, Brighton, Albert Park, Middle Park, Sandringham, Sorrento, Portsea, Hawthorn, Kew, Malvern, Camberwell, Canterbury, and Toorak, to name a few).
As a former college student and former painter, I instantly related to all of the author's observations regarding painters and the painting occupation in general. It took me a total of nine years off and on to graduate from college and start a professional career, and a lot of my motivation came from thousands of hours of painting houses and roughnecking on oil rigs during my 20s. John's sense of humor about the drudgery of painting was a perfect fit with his drive for perfection on every painting job.
Actress Margot Kidder poses for a portrait in 1985 in Los Angeles, Calif. Kidder, who starred as Lois Lane in the “Superman” film franchise of the late 1970s and early 1980s, has died. Franzen-Davis Funeral Home in Livingston, Montana posted a notice on its website saying Kidder died Sunday, May 13, 2918, at her home there. She was 69. Harry Langdon, Getty Images

 I've been married, for 27 years and have 5 children. I graduated from Sevier county high school, served in the Army National Guard, for ten + years, also served in the Naval Reserve. I'm honest,trustworthy,and I am a CHRISTIAN who attends church often, thank you for looking at my site Excellence and Professionalism Being a owner of one of the premier Knoxville painting companies, in Knoxville we at Smith Quality Painting strive to provide exceptional service. Knoxville painting Contractors, can't compare to Smith Quality Painting WE HAVE A+ RATING THE BBB.. Our results speak for them selves always at a affordable price.we offer professional Interior painting in Knoxville tn.and Exterior painting in Knoxville tn. Service, specializing in custom repaints, wallpaper removal,drywall repair,and remodeling projects
His team is very meticulous, very careful, very clean, and very courteous! They're also very accommodating. For instance, I mentioned a couple spots under some angled siding where I thought a little extra filling was needed, and they obliged without question. Same thing with a request for a stain-proof primer under a balcony. Doing these kinds of little things without question or extra charges is really nice!
In general, glossier paints are more stain-resistant and scrubbable. But a higher sheen also highlights any imperfections in the wall or in the paint job. "Flat paints are fine for ceilings and formal rooms, but for most of my customers, I recommend an eggshell gloss. It's good for hallways, kids' rooms, even kitchens and baths," says Toto. It seems that latex paints have won over even the most finicky painters. "Though we still use oil-based paints for restor-ation work, latex paints are fine for interior walls and new trim," says Toto, "as long as you don't go cheap on the paint." All of our pros have their personal favorites, but they agree that good paint does not come cheap. "You'll spend $20 to $35 per gallon for a top-shelf paint," says Weeks. The pros also agreed that using two coats of paint will result in the best-looking job. Don't skimp on the coverage; if you're covering more than 400 square feet per gallon, you're spreading it too thin. Also, keep 1/4 to 1/2 gallon on hand for touch-ups.
We had a bad experience with an interior painter years ago, with the crux of the problem being him overcharging us at the end for "extra work" he didn't anticipate. One thing I'd strongly recommend is making sure it's in the contract that any additional work or growth work is estimated and communicated to the owner as soon as it is identified, otherwise the owner is not liable to pay it at the end.
This was very helpful. I wonder if i would really follow through and check to see if my painter was cheating me. I used a painter I found on Angie's List. This was 5 years ago. He did a great job. I know he did patching only for about a day and a half. We decided on the kind of paint before he started. that is what he used. I don't know if I could stay on top of him and watch him open every can of paint.
I waited several months after reading this book because that's how long it takes to tell whether the stories 'stick' around in your head. And they did. John's stories would come back to me at odd moments when I found myself in similar situations. It must be sort of like judging a paint job; you have to wait to see how it weathers. I found this short, deceptively simple book weathered well. Worth re-reading.
This is an area that interior painters can easily cut short to save time. Most contracts don't state the extent of the wall repairs included, so it's up to the painter's discretion how much they will do. If it seems like too much work, they'll usually point out the repairs but don't include it in the bid. They'll then ask you if you'd like it fixed after they start your project and let you know how much more it will cost.
Painting the exterior of your home is an essential maintenance task that can be challenging, time-consuming and extremely messy. The fastest and safest way to get the job done right is to hire a professional exterior painting contractor. A pro will have the right tools, equipment, and experience for the job, will be able to recommend the most effective paints for your particular project, and can handle the necessary prep work to ensure a lasting finish. They will also select the best time to paint your home to keep the project within your timeline and budget.
Stacee, I agree with you completely, from adding water to latex paint to taking whites from job to job. This article makes all painters look like scam artists. You get what you pay for people! There is no denying that there are scammers out there but in my experience, most painters are under paid any ways so if you want a good paint job, you are going to pay for it. If you just want a new color on your walls real quick, and that is what you pay for then that's what you pay for people. Most painters get the crap end of the stick and are left with making an entire house look good when it took a lot more than a painter to build the house in the first place. Good painters do not get enough credit. They are not all scammers who are cutting corners!
If you decide to hire help, have several contractors inspect the job and provide proposals. You'll probably find huge price differences for the same job. A Checkbook undercover shopper got quotes from nine Washington-area contractors to repaint the walls, ceiling and trim for a living room, dining room, family room, bathroom and kitchen. Including paint and supplies, prices ranged from $2,650 or less to more than $6,500.
How your business appears at a glance is a vital component of your brand. Old, worn paint or outdated colors can detract from the professionalism of your company. Our team of commercial painting experts at Nevada Painting Company can help you keep your business looking great inside and out to ensure you make a positive, lasting impression on your customers.
A fresh paint job has the power to totally transform the look of your house in less time and for less cash than any other remodeling project. That thin skin of resin and pigment also protects your investment, shielding it from sun, wind, and rain—until the paint begins to crack and peel, that is. Then it's time to button up with a couple of new coats. Properly applied, new paint should last for a good 15 years, provided you use top-quality materials, apply them with care (and with an eye on the weather), and, most important, clean and sand every surface first. Here's what you need to know to get a first-class finish on your home's exterior.
A number of details will affect the cost of painting the exterior of your house, such as its size, accessibility and siding type. In many cases though, preparation often has the biggest impact on the bottom line.Your local exterior painting contractor will take a look at the project to determine how extensive repairs and preparation will be and if special equipment, materials or paints are needed to get the job done right.
On a scale of 1-10, House Painting Inc gets a 12!  They painted the exterior of our 2-story house and the results were excellent.  The cost was very reasonable (between the highest and lowest bids we received), the prep work was thorough, and daily clean-up was diligent.  They often left the area cleaner than when they arrived.  The painters were always on-time, worked hard the full day, minimized any impact on us, and did excellent work.  This is a professional organization; they deliver on their promises.
Historically, the painter was responsible for the mixing of the paint; keeping a ready supply of pigments, oils, thinners and driers. The painter would use his experience to determine a suitable mixture depending on the nature of the job. In modern times, the painter is primarily responsible for preparation of the surface to be painted, such as patching holes in drywall, using masking tape and other protection on surfaces not to be painted, applying the paint and then cleaning up.[2]
Painting is a skilled job with plenty of room for error, from knowing how to prepare the appropriate surface to understanding the best interior paint for the situation. When you book through Handy, we match your job’s requirements with experienced house painters who will leave you completely satisfied. They'll arrive with the right equipment in hand, ready to roll.

 Smith Quality Painting, a painting contractor in Knoxville Tn. who care for are customers. Service at a level not usually expected, and ultimately to offer affordable prices. This is provided by trusted performance, integrity, and value. Knoxville painting contractors compassionate and inspired to care for our projects, through quality old world workmanship, Were the most trusted, and most often times sought after Knoxville painting company  homeowners, builders, and facilities managers in various organizations. We value the relationships we build with our customers and it is our goal to enhance our growth with continued improvement. We owe all of our success to our customers. At Smith Quality Painting, we return every call within 4 regular business hours / 7 days a week.
Paint Life offers our Bid Package downloads that are an important part of the success of my painting company B&K Painting.  The bid package is a compilation of over 20 pages that sells our business without ever meeting the customer. Its yours for $300. My bid package is a document that I have created and edited over a period of 13 years to its now almost perfect form.  Don’t look like every other painter with a one page scratched out bid.  Look like the best by giving your customers the best bid in your region.  Click Here the read more and purchase.
You've got me very afraid now, I've been taken in a couple of times since I moved here. They take advantage of me because I am a single woman, not exaggerating! From gardeners to inside work. Wouldn't have house painted but I know my HOA will be after me soon, garage door is peeling and stucco needs repair. Got the $1500.00 deal, but paying more for extra work they say I need.

This is a keeper. John Burbidge is an excellent writer with a great ability to describe some truly improbable situations and true-to-life human interactions. This is a book of essays but also a bit of an autobiography and it is immensely entertaining and thought provoking. The one about using his mountain climbing skills to paint a huge building in "Risk Takers" is hilarious. If I had to pick a favorite, "Fathers and Sons" is at the top of my list. It's funny, sad, heart-warming and true, all at the same time. I wish the book were longer, it's just that good.


Residential house painters on the Handy platform have used countless gallons of paint and tons of brushes over the years. With a wealth of experience under their belts, they know the best, quickest and most cost-effective ways to get the work done. From how to achieve that perfect glossy finish to ensuring no paint drips onto your crown molding, you might find yourself picking up a few tips!
Yes the pricing does change, and quite significantly. I have worked inside the paint industry on counter sales outside sales and application for over 10 years. One thing many people do not understand is, the resins in the paint are more expensive to produce the higher the sheen goes. Therefore the company is at of higher cost making the paint, which in terms they charge more for the paint. I have seen a 15$ variance between flat-semi-gloss it is not uncommon and is not unrealistic to pay more for a higher sheen. Another thing to add is when doing samples on your wall prior to a painter coming is a good idea, however do not do them in huge squares with heavy coats, remember you are just wanting an idea. A lot of times the issue comes up of the paint not covering the sample coats, in fact it is covering quite well, however the paint sample applied is often times much darker than the wall color, creating a contrasting difference from the lighter surrounding wall and the sample placed on the wall. I recommend getting a piece of sheet rock and using it for the samples so you can move around with it etc.
 I've been married, for 27 years and have 5 children. I graduated from Sevier county high school, served in the Army National Guard, for ten + years, also served in the Naval Reserve. I'm honest,trustworthy,and I am a CHRISTIAN who attends church often, thank you for looking at my site Excellence and Professionalism Being a owner of one of the premier Knoxville painting companies, in Knoxville we at Smith Quality Painting strive to provide exceptional service. Knoxville painting Contractors, can't compare to Smith Quality Painting WE HAVE A+ RATING THE BBB.. Our results speak for them selves always at a affordable price.we offer professional Interior painting in Knoxville tn.and Exterior painting in Knoxville tn. Service, specializing in custom repaints, wallpaper removal,drywall repair,and remodeling projects
We have been in the business for over forty five years, and in that time, have built up a reputation in Australia as a trustworthy partner to our clients. We regularly work with couples and individuals in putting the finishing coat on a new or refurbished home, and also provide support to businesses seeking to round out their professional look and theme with the right surface color scheme and décor. With our years of experience, we have become proficient in project planning and execution, limiting any inconvenience or down time to your property access to the greatest extent possible.Remember that paint isn’t always just paint. Depending on your needs for a business or house painting, Melbourne properties can come under a lot of stress due to extreme weather conditions. 

If you decide to hire help, have several contractors inspect the job and provide proposals. You'll probably find huge price differences for the same job. A Checkbook undercover shopper got quotes from nine Washington-area contractors to repaint the walls, ceiling and trim for a living room, dining room, family room, bathroom and kitchen. Including paint and supplies, prices ranged from $2,650 or less to more than $6,500.
Prince Consort Henrik of Denmark presents his new collection of poems 'Roue-Libre' (Freewheel) at the Royal Yacht in Copenhagen, Denmark on June 16, 2010. Prince Henrik of Denmark has died at the age of 83. In 2017, he was diagnosed with dementia and was recently hospitalized after falling ill in Egypt. He returned to Denmark for a stay in the Rigshospitale in Copenhagen, and during a series of examinations a benign tumor was discovered on his left lung. His condition worsened and, according to media reports, he passed away in his sleep at Fredensborg Palace on the evening of Feb. 13, 2018. Prince Henrik is survived by his wife, two sons and eight grandchildren. Keld Navntoft, Scanpix Denmark via EPA-EFE
Are you looking for interior house painters that are local, reliable and the best at what they do? Does the idea of painting the walls of your home fill you with dread? If you want to get the best results with minimal fuss, then make Handy your first choice when you need to connect with expert painting contractors. From preparing your interior walls and ceilings to achieving a neat, professional finish, Handy will put you in touch with the right people for the job. Customize your request by specifying your job details, from how many painters you need to how long you’ll need them. We’ll connect you with the painting professionals that suit you best with no compromise on quality.
A fresh coat of paint makes everything it touches seem brand new. But such new beginnings cost real money. Professional painters charge around $4,000 for labor and materials to paint the exterior of a 2,500-square-foot, two-story home and roughly $5,500 for the interior. Painters’ rates may range from $20 to $60 an hour, but around $40 is typical in urban areas.

It is often necessary to have a rental property painted -- whether it's to make it your own before you move in or to clean it up for someone new when you move out. Some buildings and landlords have pre-selected painters, while others will contract companies to paint on an as-needed basis. If your landlord or building doesn't have a pre-selected painter, see if you may be allowed to paint the walls yourself. If you're moving in and selecting a non-neutral color, understand that your landlord may require you to repaint the walls the original color when you move out -- and ensure that you're ready to make that investment down the road.


• One room or the whole house? Applying one coat in one room is a reasonable DIY Saturday project (especially if you have help and beer). Multiply the time spent moving furniture, prepping walls and sanding old trim by the number of rooms in the house, and you might want to hire real help. It's the same outside. You can probably tackle one shady garage wall that needs a little scraping and sanding plus a coat of paint, but covering all surfaces of the house is usually best left to a pro.

• One room or the whole house? Applying one coat in one room is a reasonable DIY Saturday project (especially if you have help and beer). Multiply the time spent moving furniture, prepping walls and sanding old trim by the number of rooms in the house, and you might want to hire real help. It's the same outside. You can probably tackle one shady garage wall that needs a little scraping and sanding plus a coat of paint, but covering all surfaces of the house is usually best left to a pro.
Over the past year I have had several jobs given to 2 Angie's list recommendations and 1 not from a recommendation. They all have one thing in common, lack of sufficient and correct preparation to save time, labor, and the fact that they put a person in charge that was a cut corners type of worker. The two from Angie's list sent worker/s back to try touch up problems, but once the job is not prepared correctly in the first place any extra work is like putting a band-aid on a dirty wound.
Not only did they paint our home- they also helped reattach a drain pipe that had partially come off the home, removed a small bee or wasps nest hanging off a side of the roof (this was SO nice of them and totally unexpected), and painted over some railings that were in serious need of TLC but were not included in our quote (we didn't ask for them to be painted when James came to meet with us). David asked my husband first about the railings and only painted them when he gave them the okay- it looks so much better and we appreciated this so much! While the painters were working we also had a termite inspection and contractor come over to look at something in the kitchen- David's team had no problem with this and were very accommodating.
You've got me very afraid now, I've been taken in a couple of times since I moved here. They take advantage of me because I am a single woman, not exaggerating! From gardeners to inside work. Wouldn't have house painted but I know my HOA will be after me soon, garage door is peeling and stucco needs repair. Got the $1500.00 deal, but paying more for extra work they say I need.
All Handy residential house painters are vetted and verified. They’ll also come with their own tools and equipment, so when they arrive at your home, they're ready to get to work. Handy offers friendly customer service, available to connect you with house painting services, whenever you need them. Book your painting contractors to arrive at the time that suits you best and rest assured that they'll take care of every aspect of the job. Your house painting job is backed by the Handy Happiness Guarantee because your satisfaction is important to us.
The only time it's acceptable to mix water in the paint is when you're using a deep or ultra deep base paint to reduce its stickiness, which is rare with new paint technology. Dark primary colors are composed almost entirely of tint that makes it very hard to work with without adding water. (You never use a sprayer and need to thin paint.?) If i was still in the industry I'd take the time to make a better article than this. Take this for a grain of slat. Use a reputable painter or someone you know you can trust or has been referred to you by someone you trust. I wouldn't hire anyone I had to watch like a hawk to make sure they're not screwing me.
You are right on with this - why do people leave switch plates on when it's just so easy to take them off? Another thing that happened to us - we had the popcorn ceiling taken off and the ceiling painted white. When the job was done and I later went to change out all the fixtures/fans, they had left every fixture in place, so there was a large patch of popcorn and unpainted ceiling left behind - it just didn't dawn on me to specify that they take those down before scraping and painting. It was kind of a mess.

Home and business owners all throughout the Kansas City metro area — be it Lenexa, Shawnee, Olathe, or elsewhere — agree that Neighborhood Painting Inc. should be your one-stop shop for all of your residential and commercial painting needs. Our customers have taken note of our emphasis on clear communication. We walk through each step of the painting process with you from start to finish to ensure your satisfaction. All work is performed by our friendly in-house staff. We do not use subcontractors to complete any of our painting services.
In this Nov. 30, 2000, file photo, former pro wrestler Bruno Sammartino, 65, poses with a painting of him in his pro wrestling prime weighing 275 pounds in 1965 at age 35, in his Pittsburgh home. Bruno Sammartino, professional wrestling's "Living Legend" and one of its longest-reigning champions, has died. Sammartino was 82. Family friend and former wrestling announcer Christoper Crusie said Sammartino died Wednesday morning, April 18, 2018, and had been hospitalized for two months. Gene J. Puskar, AP
• One room or the whole house? Applying one coat in one room is a reasonable DIY Saturday project (especially if you have help and beer). Multiply the time spent moving furniture, prepping walls and sanding old trim by the number of rooms in the house, and you might want to hire real help. It's the same outside. You can probably tackle one shady garage wall that needs a little scraping and sanding plus a coat of paint, but covering all surfaces of the house is usually best left to a pro.
B. Harley Bradley House in Kankakee, Illinois. This commission helped launch Wright’s Prairie School period where he experimented with open floor plans, long ribbons of art-glass windows, horizontal elevations, and other elements that forever changed how homes were designed. An American Home: Frank Lloyd Wright’s B. Harley Bradley House spotlights the story of this architectural treasure and explores its uncanny connection to the rise, fall, and resurgence of its designer and the community in which it resides.
Expect the best when you hire our team of experts for your residential painting needs. Nevada Painting Company has built our stellar reputation on providing unmatched excellent service and superior results with our painting options. We utilize the latest technology and techniques in the painting industry to give our clients the best quality painting service available for their home.
I bought this because an excerpt was included at the end of another Orbit book I was reading, and I have to say I feel like I'm reading bad Buffy fanfic. At least two thirds of the characters even share names with Whedon characters, and when I got to the bits about the character called "the Aurelian," I think I actually groaned out loud on the commuter train. Come on, at least name your own characters!
In this May 17, 2017, file photo, Red Schoendienst, manager of the St. Louis Cardinals' 1967 World Series championship team, takes part in a ceremony honoring the 50th anniversary of the victory, before a baseball game between the Cardinals and the Boston Red Sox in St. Louis. Schoendienst, the Hall of Fame second baseman who managed the Cardinals to two pennants and a World Series championship in the 1960s, died Wednesday, June 6, 2018. He was 95. The Cardinals announced Schoendienst's death before the top of the third inning during their game against the Miami Marlins. Jeff Roberson, AP

Enforcement of this Act by the Painter-Stainers Company was sought up until the early 19th century, with master painters gathering irregularly to decide the fees that a journeyman could charge, and also instigating an early version of a job centre in 1769, advertising in the London newspapers a "house of call" system to advertise for journeymen and also for journeymen to advertise for work. The guild's power in setting the fee a journeyman could charge was eventually overturned by law in 1827, and the period after this saw the guild's power diminish, along with that of the other guilds; the guilds were superseded by trade unions, with the Operative United Painters' Union forming sometime around 1831.[2]
×